As Pradyumna S. Apel, K. N ew York: W. In socio-historical studies, however, the concept of modernity has been specifically linked with the emergence of industrial societies which first came into being in northwestern Europe some two centuries ago. The converse is equally true: the aesthetic dimension of exact sciences or their temporary passage towards weak epistemologies is not valid arguments in favor of turning the actual con figuration of intellectual discourses upside down.
The experimental hypotheses were that tension in side reins 1 increases biphasically in each trot stride, 2 changes inversely with rein length, and 3 changes with elasticity of the reins. Eight riding horses trotted in hand at consistent speed in a straight line wearing a bit and bridle and three types of side reins inelastic, stiff elastic, compliant elastic were evaluated in random order at long, neutral, and short lengths.
Strain gauge transducers Hz measured minimal, maximal and mean rein tension, rate of loading and impulse. Rein tension oscillated in a regular pattern with a peak during each diagonal stance phase.
Within each rein type, minimal, maximal and mean tensions were higher with shorter reins. At neutral or short lengths, minimal tension increased and maximal tension decreased with elasticity of the reins.
Short, inelastic reins had the highest maximal tension and rate of loading. Since the tension variables respond differently to rein elasticity at different lengths, it is recommended that a set of variables representing different aspects of rein tension should be reported.
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